Course Name Code Semester T+U Hours Credit ECTS
Physical Metallurgy Of Welding IMM 520 0 3 + 0 3 6
Precondition Courses <p>None</p>
Recommended Optional Courses <p>None</p>
Course Language Turkish
Course Level yuksek_lisans
Course Type Optional
Course Coordinator Prof.Dr. SÜLEYMAN CAN KURNAZ
Course Lecturers Prof.Dr. UĞUR ŞEN,
Course Assistants

None

Course Category Field Proper Education
Course Objective

This course provides to understand the weldability of metals which is considered in term of the various process variables of fusion welding and the weld thermal cycle at the level of M.Sc. and Ph.D. It also provides to evaluate the type of cracking problems in term of alloy’s compositions and a number of interacting parameters, such as carbon equivalent, heat input, preheat temperature, joint type, etc.

Course Content

The basic principles of fusion welding. The absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen gases in the weld metal. The chemical composition of weld. The weld thermal cycle, heat flow equations. The thermal cycle of the base metal and weld metal. Weld simulation. Residual stresses in welds. Numerical methods of estimating residual stresses in welds. Characteristics weld solidification. Geometry of weld melt. Crystal growth and segregation during the welding. Phase transformation during cooling of the weld metal. Predicting the microstructure and properties of weld metals. The microstructure and properties of heat affected zone (HAZ). The base metal’s carbon equivalent. The heating cycle and grain growth in the HAZ. The reactions at the fusion line, Transformation during cooling. The HAZ and weld metal in multi-run welds. The cooling rate of steels, Calculation of t5/8 cooling time. Heat treatment of welding. The control of preheat and post heat temperatures. The post-weld heat treatments. Weld CCT and TTT diagrams. Hardness measurements and distributions of weld region. Cracking and fracture in welds. Fracture toughness of weld region. The weld defects such as, solidification cracking, liquation cracking, lamellar tearing, cold cracking, reheat cracking. The case studies.

# Course Learning Outcomes Teaching Methods Assessment Methods
1 To be able to distinguish the different regions of a fusion weld in common engineering alloys Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
2 To be able to distinguish the fundamental concepts of solidification under equilibrium and non equilibrium conditions and the characteristics of weld solidification and define the geometry of weld melt Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
3 To be able to evaluate the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen gases in the weld metal Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
4 To be able to evaluate the various mechanisms by which a partially melted zone forms in fusion welds Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
5 To be able to compose the grain growth mechanism in weld region and which factors can be affected the grain growth in common engineering alloys Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
6 To be able to estimate the various metallurgical reactions that give rise to a heat-affected zone in common engineering alloys Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
7 To be able to calculate the weld cooling time Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
8 To be able to evaluate how to use continuous cooling time (CCT) and time temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for the welding of steels Lecture, Self Study, Homework, Testing,
9 To be able to evaluate the micro hardness distributions of weld regions Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
10 To be able to estimate the various types of cracking associated with fusion welds, the basic principles of weld solidification cracking and the mechanisms proposed to explain this form of cracking Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
11 To be able to judge how weldability tests can be used to quantify cracking susceptibility Lecture, Self Study, Testing, Homework,
Week Course Topics Preliminary Preparation
1 The factors affected on the physical metallurgy of welding. The basic principles of fusion welding. The absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen gases in the weld metal. The chemical composition of weld.
2 The weld thermal cycle, heat flow equations. The thermal cycle of the base metal and weld metal. Weld simulation.
3 Residual stresses in welds. Stresses and strains generated by changes in temperature. Stresses generated by phase transformation. Measurement of residual stresses in welds. Numerical methods of estimating residual stresses in welds.
4 The structure of weld metal. Characteristics weld solidification. Geometry of weld melt. Crystal growth and segregation during the welding. Cellular and dendritic solidification in welds.
5 The structure of weld region. Phase transformation during cooling of the weld metal. Predicting the microstructure and properties of weld metals.
6 The microstructure and properties of heat affected zone (HAZ). The base metal’s carbon equivalent. The heating cycle and grain growth in the HAZ.
7 The reactions at the fusion line, Transformation during cooling. The HAZ and weld metal in multi-run welds. The HAZ microstructure in ferrous and nonferrous metals.
8 The cooling rate of steels, Calculation of t5/8 cooling time. The effects of cooling time on weld structure.
9 Heat treatment of welding. The control of preheat and post heat temperatures. The post-weld heat treatments. The control of temperature and time.
10 Weld CCT and TTT diagrams. Hardness measurements and distributions of weld region.
11 Cracking and fracture in welds. Fracture toughness of weld region. The weld defects such as, solidification cracking, liquation cracking and avoid them by choosing the proper welding methods and procedure
12 The weld defects such as, lamellar tearing, cold cracking, reheat cracking and avoid them by choosing the proper welding methods and procedure. Case studies.
13 The case studies examples about the failure weld structures.
14 The case studies examples about the failure weld structures.
Resources
Course Notes <p>Prof. Dr. H&uuml;seyin UZUN, Phsical metallurgy of welding&nbsp;, Sakarya University, 2008.</p>
Course Resources

[2] Selahattin ANIK, Kaynak Kabiliyet, İTÜ yayını, 1982.
[3] Nezihi ÖZDEN, Kaynağın Isıl İşlemi, İzmir Aliağa Yayını, 1990.
[4] Kenneth Easterling, Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding, Butterworths, London, 1990.
[5] Norman Bailey, Weldability of Ferritic Steels, England, 1994.
[6] Kearns W.H., Welding Handbook, Volume 1-5, American Welding Society, Miami.
[7] Porter D.A. and Easterling K., Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, London, 1996.
[8] Linnert G.E., Welding Metallurgy, Vol 1, AWS, Miami, 1994.

Order Program Outcomes Level of Contribution
1 2 3 4 5
1 Ability to access wide and deep information with scientific researches in the field of Manufacturing Engineering, evaluate, interpret and implement the knowledge gained in his/her field of study X
2 Ability to consolidate Manufacturing Engineering problems, develop proper method(s) to solve and apply the innovative solutions to them
3 Gain comprehensive information on modern techniques, methods and their borders which are being applied to Manufacturing Engineering X
4 Ability to design and apply analytical, modelling and experimental based research, analyze and interpret the faced complex issues during the design and apply process X
5 Analytical modeling and experimental design based on research and application capabilities; the ability to analyze and interpret complex situations in this process X
6 Awareness of the new and developing practices of the profession; the ability to examine and learn when necessary
7 Design and apply theoretical, experimental and model-based research; analyze and solve complicated problems in this process X
8 Develop new and / or original ideas and methods; design complex systems or processes and develop innovative / alternative solutions in their designs.
9 The ability to transcribe the processes and outcomes of their work in a systematic and explicit way, either in writing or verbally, in the national and international contexts, X
10 It considers social, scientific and ethical values in the collection, interpretation, announcement of data and in all professional activities. X
11 To be able to develop strategy, policy and implementation plans on issues related to manufacturing engineering and to be able to evaluate the results obtained within the framework of quality processes
12 Students are aware of the social, environmental, health, safety, legal aspects of project management and business practices and limitations on their engineering applications.
Evaluation System
Semester Studies Contribution Rate
1. Ödev 100
Total 100
1. Yıl İçinin Başarıya 40
1. Final 60
Total 100
ECTS - Workload Activity Quantity Time (Hours) Total Workload (Hours)
Course Duration (Including the exam week: 16x Total course hours) 16 3 48
Hours for off-the-classroom study (Pre-study, practice) 16 3 48
Mid-terms 1 10 10
Assignment 1 30 30
Performance Task (Seminar) 1 5 5
Final examination 1 20 20
Total Workload 161
Total Workload / 25 (Hours) 6.44
dersAKTSKredisi 6